By Her Greatest Viceroy, CHANG. CHIH-TUNG, with the Sanction of the Present Emperor, Kwang Hsü





** If a man will not understand in what misfortune consists, disgrace is sure to follow: But if he will only face the difficulty — happiness will ensue.” — The Viceroy.

Edinburgh and London

Oliphant, Anderson & Ferrier 1901

Printed by


171-173 Macdougal st.

New York, u. s. A.


Custom of swearing witnesses in use in China

Friday’s Post 
The Ipswich Journal (Ipswich, England), Saturday, September 5, 1801; Issue 3575.
Wednesday evening a serious fray took place in Kingsland Road, between some of the Chinese when one of them, named Agui, received a violent blow on his head with a hatchet, which rendered it necessary to send him to the hospital, where his recovery is deemed doubtful.
The man who gave the blow was taken before John Gifford, Esq. the sitting Magistrate, who, by means of an interpreter, took the deposition of two of the Chinese who were present, and committed the offender, named Assing, to prison. 
The Magistrate was reduced to the necessity of adopting the custom of swearing witnesses in use in China. He caused a saucer to be given to each of them, which they dashed to pieces, calling God to dash them to pieces in a similar way, if they spoke any thing but the truth.

Horn crafts or manufacturing

[GENERAL ORDERS, The Aberdeen Journal (Aberdeen, Scotland), Wednesday, August 5, 1801; Issue 2795.]
This news briefing introduced Chinese horn crafts, the process of manufacturing was little known elsewhere but in China at the time.

A Quantity of fine horn, we understand, has lately been received from China, It is considered a good substute for glass, being surprisingly thin and transparent. The horns generally manufactured by the Chinese are those of sheep and goats. The ususal way of managing them is, to bend them by immersion in boiling water; after which they are cut open and flattened; they then easily scale, or are separated into two or three thin laminae, or plates. In order that these plates should be made to join, they are exposed to the penetrating effect of steam, by which they are rendered perfectly  soft. By applying the edges immediately to each other, and pressing them, they instantly adhere and from one substance. It is a contrivance little known elsewhere but in china.

Chinese emigrants in South East Asia in 19 Century

Old News e-clipping, from Wednesday’s and Thursday’s posts, Trewman’s Exeter Flying Post (Exeter, England), Thursday, March 26, 1801. In this news, Chinese emigrants in Java were obliged to return home, but their property had been detained and confiscated by the then Dutch Government, it’s interesting that the paper used ‘tyranny’ to describe the Dutch Government.

A letter from Bombay, dated in November last, mentions a report of considerable supplies of stores having reached Batavia from Europe; it adds, that a great number of Chinese, who have emigrated to Java for the purpose of commerce, had been obliged, by the tyranny and rapacity of the Dutch, to return home, but that the property of many of them had been detained and confiscated by the Government.

There is another report from Foreign Intelligence (The Aberdeen Journal (Aberdeen, Scotland), Wednesday, August 12, 1801; Issue 2796.), Chinese emigrants has been treated badly by Spanish government in Manila:

All political disquisition, we understand, is strictly forbidden at Manila.The Chinese merchants have been driven away through the jealousy of the Spanish government. The restrictions throughout the neighbouring islands have caused most of the necessaries of life to rise to an enormous price. The people said to have become seriously disaffected to the Government, which is stated to uphold itself by very prompt measures.

Chinese merchants in Maluku Iselands also lost their lucritave commerce of the gold dust collection. There was a report on Foreign Intelligence The Aberdeen Journal (Aberdeen, Scotland), Wednesday, September 1, 1802; Issue 2851.

A letter from Madras says, “A most advantageous trade is now carried on with the Molucucu Islands. The whole of the gold dust collected in Celebes is given in exchange for the manufactures of England and of British India. This lucrative branch of commerce, which has long been in the hands of the Chinese, is now fallen into the possession of the English.
The Molucucu Islands, also known as the Maluku, Moluccas, Moluccan Islands, the Spice Islands or simply Maluku, are an archipelago in Indonesia.

Western media’s view of Chinese in 19th century

[This article is from Friday’s Post, The Ipswich Journal (Ipswich, England), Saturday, January 17, 1801. It’s quite interesting to read how Western media’s view of Chinese in 19th century, no issues about anti Chinese cheap products, no human rights problems, or air polutions.]

The common people in China, have ballads and songs inculcating chiefly the rules of civility; the relative duties of life, and maxims of morality.

The Chinese novels are amusing and instructive; they enliven the imagination without corrupting the heart, and are replete with axioms which tend to the reformation of manners by a powerful recommendation of the practice of virtue.

Conscious that the political existence of a Government depends on the proper regulation of the impulses of Nature, the severest penalties are denouced by the Chinese code of laws against all publications unfriendly to decency and good order; the purchasers of them are held in detestation by the greater part of the community; and with the publishers are alike obnoxious to the laws, which no rank, or station, however exalted, can violate with impurity.

The greatest encouragement is given by this extraordinary people to the cultivation of letters. The literati rank above the military, are eligible to the highest stations, and receive the most profound homage from all ranks.

Some of the Chinese paper is made of cotton, some of hemp; other sorts are of the bamboo, of the mulberry, or of the arbutus, which last is most in use. The inner rind, being reduced by maceration and pounding to a fluid paste, is then placed in frame moulds, and the sheets are completed by drying in a sort of stove.

The ink, commonly called “Indian ink,” is made of lamp-black, beat up in a mortar with musk, and a thin size. When brought to the consistence of paste, it is put into small moulds, stamping upon the ink what characters are wanted; and it is then dried in the sun or air.

The Chinese do not use pens, but pencils made with hair, particularly with that of rabbit. 
When they write, they have upon their table a small piece of polished marble, with an hollow at one end to contain water; into this they dip their stick of ink and rub it upon the smooth part, leaning more or less heavily, to proportion the blackness.

When they write, they hold the pencil perpendicularly. They write in columns, from the top of the paper to the bottom, commencing on the right-hand side of the margin and end their books where Europeans begin theirs, whose last page is with them the first.

The paper, ink, pencil, and marble, are called “pau-tsee,” “The four precious things.”